U.S. Navy minesweepers protected other navy vessels from explosives hidden underwater. They provided this essential service during World War II personnel landings. Like other navy ships, minesweepers contained asbestos in many components, leading to high rates of mesothelioma in U.S. Navy veterans today.
The modern use of minesweepers dates back to just before World War I. The British government recognized the need to clear the seas and initially used fishing trawlers to clear mines from the English Channel.
A special fleet of mine-clearing trawlers assigned to the Royal Navy became the first modern minesweeping force. Crews included of fishermen outfitted with protective gear. The class of ship continued to evolve over the years:
- Eventually, the British Navy developed and built specialized vessels with equipment designed specifically for detecting and clearing mines.
- The first dedicated minesweepers were used in World War I, and their use peaked during World War II when both Axis and Allied forces relied heavily on them to protect their fleets and civilian ships. They may be considered the unsung heroes of that war, as they often entered waters long before any other fleet ships did, clearing the way and making sure the area was safe.
- In the U.S. Navy, minesweepers would serve in other conflicts, including the Korean and Vietnam Wars and during the Cold War.
- Modern minesweepers contain specialized equipment to detect mines underwater. They are not supposed to detonate the mines, and they are soundproofed to evade detection by enemy fleets.
- Mechanical sweeps cut the cables tied to mines and tag them so that they can be secured later. When detonating mines, minesweepers use equipment called influence sweeps. These are towed behind the ship and give off a signature that detonates the mine.
Types of Minesweeper Vessels
Over many decades, the U.S. Navy used several designations for minesweepers. The basic designation for the original minesweeper is simply AM. Other variations on this type include:
- Motor minesweepers (AMS)
- Coastal minesweepers (MSC)
- Inshore minesweepers (MSI)
- Harbor minesweepers (AMB)
- Mine Countermeasures (MCM)
- Ocean minesweepers (AMO)
- Coastal minehunters (MHC)
- Underwater mine locator (AMCU)
History of Minesweepers in the U.S. Navy
The U.S. Navy’s first minesweeper was the USS Lapwing, designated AM 1. It was built in 1917 and commissioned in 1918. It gave its name to the first class of U.S. minesweepers, the Lapwing class, first used in World War II.
About thirty of these ships were sent to the North Sea to clear mines along the coasts of Scotland and Norway and prevent the German Navy’s movement. Many of these ships continued to clear mines even after the war ended.
During World War II, minesweepers came into their own, a time during which most of the AM-designated ships were built and commissioned for the U.S. Navy. In total, the Navy deployed nearly 500 ships involved in mine detection and clearing.
The technology on these ships was not as advanced as on today’s few remaining minesweepers. They simply towed equipment that cut cables to mines. The mines floated to the surface and were detonated with guns. In addition to minesweeping, these vessels had escorting duties, conducted patrols, and even conducted anti-submarine operations.
Minesweepers were deployed to a lesser degree during the Korean War, sweeping the waters off the coast of the Korean Peninsula and restricting the movement of the North Korean military. Unfortunately, the minesweepers used during this war had a significant flaw. The enemy’s magnetic mines targeted their steel hulls. Mines caused many U.S. casualties during the war.
During the Korean War, the destruction caused by mines led the U.S. to create a new class of minesweepers, designated MSOs. They were smaller than previous minesweepers and had wooden and bronze hulls. They had technology enabling them to detect and clear magnetic mines, acoustic mines, and more traditional moored mines.
Minesweepers were used less frequently after the Vietnam War, but a few were instrumental in patrolling waters during the Cold War.
In the 1980s, the U.S. Navy constructed a new class of vessels called mine countermeasure ships, or MCMs. A few of these are still active today and are used to clear waterways by detecting and destroying mines. They were used during the Persian Gulf wars of the early 1990s.
Asbestos Use and Exposure on Minesweepers
Most U.S. Navy ships used asbestos from the 1930s to the 1970s. Construction included asbestos because of its abundance, inexpensive cost, and ability to insulate and fireproof effectively. Heat and fire are major problems aboard ships. For decades asbestos was used heavily in minesweepers and other navy vessels.
Asbestos insulated many components and areas of minesweepers. It was used around and in boilers and turbines and around steam pipes. Packing, cement, cloth, felt, and gaskets throughout the ships were made with asbestos.
Protective gear for men who handled hot equipment and guns, such as heat-proof gloves, was made with asbestos. Hundreds of parts on all types of Navy ships were made with asbestos. Documentation records specific use of asbestos on minesweepers, including the USS Tanager, in service in World War II.
Any Navy veteran who served on a ship could have been exposed to asbestos. The fibers of the mineral could come loose and contaminate the air. Inhaled fibers could lodge in the body and cause damage over the years, leading to mesothelioma or lung cancer in some veterans.
Veterans at the greatest risk worked in the boiler and engine rooms, did maintenance and repair work, or were electricians, pipefitters, steamfitters, or other workers who handled asbestos components. Those who worked in shipyards building and repairing these ships were also at particular risk of being exposed to asbestos.
Some of the U.S. minesweepers that are likely to have been made with asbestos include:
- USS Admirable, commissioned 1943, sold
- USS Affray, commissioned 1958, scrapped
- USS Albatross, commissioned 1940, to Maritime Commission
- USS Barrier, commissioned 1944, sold
- USS Cardinal, commissioned 1940, scrapped
- USS Chickadee, commissioned 1943, sold to Uruguay
- USS Conquest, commissioned 1955, sold to Taiwan
- USS Curlew, commissioned 1940, scrapped
- USS Dominant, commissioned 1954, scrapped
- USS Eagle, commissioned 1942, sold
- USS Excel, commissioned 1955, scrapped
- USS Goldfinch, commissioned 1941, sold
- USS Gull, commissioned 1940, sold
- USS Illusive, commissioned 1953, sold
- USS Intrigue, commissioned 1944, sold to Mexico
- USS Murrelet, commissioned 1945, sold to Philippines
- USS Oracle, commissioned 1943, scrapped
- USS Persistent, commissioned 1956, sold to Spain
- USS Pilot, commissioned 1943, sold to Mexico
- USS Reaper, commissioned 1954, scrapped
- USS Revenge, commissioned 1943, scrapped
- USS Rival, commissioned 1954, sold
- USS Salute, commissioned 1955, sunk by mine
- USS Starling, commissioned 1942, sold to Mexico
- USS Staunch, commissioned 1944, scrapped
- USS Tanager, commissioned 1945, to U.S. Coast Guard
- USS Wheatear, commissioned 1945, scrapped
- USS Zeal, commissioned 1943, sunk as target
Page Edited by Patient Advocate Dave Foster
Dave has been a mesothelioma Patient Advocate for over 10 years. He consistently attends all major national and international mesothelioma meetings. In doing so, he is able to stay on top of the latest treatments, clinical trials, and research results. He also personally meets with mesothelioma patients and their families and connects them with the best medical specialists and legal representatives available.