The Use of Prosthetics in Mesothelioma Surgery
Mesothelioma is a difficult type of cancer to treat. For many patients the treatment options are limited, either because of the age and health of the patient or because of the extent to which the cancer has already spread in the body. Surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, or a combination of these strategies is the most common treatments used for patients with mesothelioma.
In many patients the cancer has spread far enough throughout the chest cavity that the only hope of removing it all is to conduct a radical surgery that removes one entire lung as well as other tissues. It is dangerous and risky, but for some patients represents a chance of survival and remission. The surgery also includes removal of much of the diaphragm and its reconstruction with prosthetics. For lung tissue that is too diseased to function, the idea of replacing it with a prosthetic is still in the theoretical stages but may be a possibility in the future.
The most extensive surgery that can be done on a mesothelioma patient in an attempt to remove all cancerous tissue is called an extrapleural pneumonectomy. This is a difficult surgical procedure that is only attempted by experts in the field of thoracic surgery. It involves removing an entire lung, the pleura that lines the chest cavity, part of the diaphragm, and sometimes even the tissue lining the heart, called the pericardium.
Patients with advanced mesothelioma are not eligible for this surgery. It is only done for those patients whose cancer has not yet spread to lymph nodes or any other tissues or organs. There is a potential that an extrapleural pneumonectomy can cure a patient with early stage mesothelioma, but it is complicated and risky. Six percent of patients die during this procedure or shortly after it and many who survive it will have a recurrence in the future.
Even when an extrapleural pneumonectomy is successful, there may be complications. Patients must be in overall good health before undergoing this surgery because the remaining lung will be doing double duty and the heart will have to work harder to pump blood to the one lung. Older patients or those with weak hearts or other lung problems besides the cancer are not usually eligible for the surgery.
Reconstructing a Prosthetic Diaphragm
One important part of an extrapleural pneumonectomy is the reconstruction of the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a muscle that is situated underneath the lungs and separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. The muscle contracts to allow air to fill the lungs and releases to help push it out. It is necessary for respiration, which is why it must be reconstructed with prosthetics after a surgery that removes it. Without a reconstructed diaphragm, breathing and pulmonary function will be low.
The materials used to make prosthetic diaphragms have changed over the years and have included surgical mesh, plastics, and Gore-Tex. Reconstruction of the diaphragm with prosthetic materials is used in other types of surgeries for things like diaphragm defects, and it is a procedure that is typically low-risk and has good outcomes for the patient.
The Problem with Lung Transplants for Cancer Patients
Removing one entire lung is a serious type of surgery and it can result in serious complications. Living with just one lung reduces pulmonary function and restricts a patient’s ability to be active. Studies have shown that there is often a trade-off: when the extrapleural pneumonectomy is done for a patient with symptoms of mesothelioma, those symptoms are reduced after the surgery, but for those who are still asymptomatic, the surgery results in a lowered quality of life.
Lung transplants may seem like a reasonable option for someone forced to lose a lung over mesothelioma, but it is not done. The main reason that mesothelioma patients do not get lung transplants is that donor organs are scarce and are not used in cancer patients because of a low chance of survival. The few donated lungs available are saved for patients for who a transplant will both improve quality of life and potentially save that life. Conditions like cystic fibrosis, congenital defects, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be treated with lung transplants.
Artificial Lungs and the uture of Implantable Prosthetic Lungs
Because donated lungs are not available to patients with mesothelioma, prosthetic lungs have been considered. Current artificial lungs are external devices, known as ECMO, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These devices pump blood through the artificial lung to oxygenate it and then back into the body. They are used for patients who do not do well on a ventilator and who are expected to recover lung function. The use of the ECMO device is intended to be temporary.
An implantable, internal prosthetic lung would be a major breakthrough in medical science. It would negate the need for donor lungs, which are few and far between. Even mesothelioma patients might benefit from a prosthetic device. Researchers have created such a device, but it has not completed testing yet. There are many issues to overcome with an implantable prosthetic lung, including rejection by the host body and simply fitting it into the chest cavity while ensuring it can provide adequate oxygenation for the blood.
Currently, the closest thing to an implantable prosthetic lung is a device that is smaller than an ECMO device and that can be strapped to the outside of the body. Instead of a mechanical pump, this device uses the heart to pump oxygenated blood. If it works in trials, the next step would be to figure out how it could be implanted into the body. The promise of prosthetic lungs is huge but still a part of theory, not practice.
Mesothelioma is a tricky cancer to treat and surgery plays an important role in giving patients hope of survival. For those who are eligible for radical surgeries like extrapleural pneumonectomy, the advances in prosthetics are important. Artificial diaphragms are being used now and prosthetic lungs are likely for the future.
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